Recently, the renewables sector has also been advancing in Russia, albeit from a lower level. Thus, it is time to explore the status quo and analyze the potential for sustainable energy cooperation. In the context of the current deterioration in EU-Russian energy relations, crafting a sustainable energy partnership that is based on innovation, with an emphasis on electricity cooperation, might present an added value. Dieser Prozess To the east of the European Union a regional energy market is taking shape under the auspices of Even if the interests of the participating states diverge and the ultimate shape of the market remains unclear, the development is likely to be substantial.
On the one hand, it threatens to deepen the fragmentation of energy markets in Europe and Asia, on the other the process could generate new opportunities for cooperation and larger spheres of integration. It is thus worth exploring at this early stage the extent to which the emerging energy market is compatible with the European Union and the European Energy Community. It is especially important to track the effects in the common neighbourhood, above all Ukraine, in order to avoid renewed geopolitical disruption.
Repertoire of contention and political opportunity structure in non-democratic context: the case of transnational anti-dam movement in the Lower Mekong Basin. Save to Library Download Edit. How they ridiculed and mocked the idea that capitalism leads to a growing polarization between rich and poor. Thus, everyone would be for the best in the best of all capitalist worlds.
So much for the theories of the bourgeois economists and sociologists. But the facts tell another story, and facts as they say are stubborn things. The recently published book Capital in the Twenty First Century by the French economist Thomas Piketty has provoked a fierce controversy. The concentration of Capital signifies an immense accumulation of wealth and power in the hands of a small number of obscenely rich individuals and a constantly increasing number of people that struggle to survive on starvation or semi-starvation levels of existence.
In a global population of 7 billion, a mere handful 2, people falls into the category of extreme wealth. Among them is a citizen of the Mexican Republic, Carlos Slim. The charity Oxfam recently revealed that the richest 85 people have the same wealth as the poorest 3. Material wealth begets power.
Meaning of "Volltreffer" in the German dictionary
Never in history has so much power been concentrated in so few hands. Democratic forms are turned into an empty husk, while the real power is wielded by tiny elites of bankers and capitalists who control and manipulate governments according to their interests. Government and big business are increasingly fused in oligarchic rule thinly disguised with the formal aspect of parliamentary government. In formally democratic countries like Britain, power has passed from parliament to the Cabinet and from the Cabinet to a tiny clique of unelected bureaucrats, advisers and public relations experts around the Prime Minister.
Democracy increasingly becomes a meaningless word. In countries like Mexico, where politicians are bought and sold the same as sacks of sugar and the rigging of elections has been turned into a fine art, the fraudulent nature of bourgeois democracy is, of course, clear to everyone. Everywhere the rich rule and the poor are expected to bow their neck submissively to the yoke of Capital. British imperialism owned almost half of the globe. It plundered the wealth of Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent and also had a stronghold over many countries in Latin America.
It was in order to break the world monopoly of British imperialism and secure a re-division of global power that the German imperialists launched the First World War. The other powers all participated eagerly in this struggle to carve up the world and seize colonial possessions. This included tsarist Russia, despite the fact that it was an economically backward semi-feudal country. Tsarist Russia never exported a single kopek of capital.
Its imperialism was more similar to the ancient kind: based on the seizure of foreign territories Poland is the obvious example and territorial expansion the conquest of the Caucasus and Central Asia. Yet Russia itself was financially dependent on France and other imperialist states.
Its economic backwardness and dependence on foreign capital did not prevent Lenin from placing it among the five main imperialist powers,. This situation changed radically after The October Revolution overthrew Tsarism and gave a powerful impulse to the movements for national liberation of the oppressed colonial peoples.
The Second World War shook the power of the old imperialist states. The upsurge of the colonial revolutions was one of the greatest events in human history. Hundreds of millions of human beings who had been condemned to the role of colonial slaves rose up against their masters in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.humbertobecerra.cl/wp-content/woodbury/1509.php
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The magnificent Chinese revolution and the national liberation of India, Indonesia and other countries marked an historic change. However, the achievement of national liberation — although a great step forward — did not solve the problems for the exploited masses. On the contrary, in many ways they were acerbated. Today, almost seven decades after the Second World War, the stranglehold of imperialism over the former colonial countries is even greater that it was in the past.
The former colonial countries remained enslaved to imperialism, although their chains are now invisible ones. Globalization is a word that hides the reality of the systematic plunder of the ex-colonial countries.
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The latter are forced to open their markets to a flood of foreign goods that ruin their local industries, cripple their economies and drain away their wealth. Giant transnational companies open factories in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Vietnam where workers are subjected to the most brutal exploitation in slave-like conditions for starvation wages to produce jeans and Nike shoes to swell the surplus value extracted by the bloodsuckers.
Disasters like Bhopal and the recent fire in a Bangladeshi textile factory devastate whole communities. The bosses of western companies weep crocodile tears and continue to fill their coffers with the products of the blood, sweat and tears of millions of colonial slaves.
The burden of debts leaves the poorest countries in the world with nothing to spend on basic needs like health, education and infrastructure. The situation in Pakistan is even worse.
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But all the underdeveloped countries find themselves exploited, robbed and oppressed by imperialism. History knows many different forms of slavery, and financial slavery is the modern form of slavery. It is not as obvious as chattel slavery, but it is slavery none the less, whereby entire nations are subjugated and plundered. The lives of billions of people are crushed by this collective debt slavery. The Bible informs us that the ancient Canaanites used to sacrifice children to Moloch.
But as a result of debt slavery seven million children are sacrificed on the altar of Capital, which makes old Moloch pale into insignificance. If debt had been cancelled in for twenty of the poorest countries, the money released for basic health care could have saved the lives of about 21 million children by the year , the equivalent of 19, children a day. This is less than the total net worth of the world's 21 richest individuals. In this way imperialism still sucks the blood of billions of poor people in the former colonial world. From very early in its history Mexico learned what it was like to live next door to a large and hungry imperialist predator.
This has had a devastating effect on Mexican industry and agriculture, while the opening of US-owned factories in the Maquiladoras in the border areas provides a huge pool of cheap labour for the Yankee bosses. Originally based in the border cities of Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Matamoros, Mexicali y Nogales, these assembly plants working for the US market have now spread throughout the whole territory of Mexico.
Here we see exactly how modern imperialism works. This neo-colonialist mode of exploitation is no less predatory than the overt plunder of the colonies realised in the past on the basis of direct military rule. In general, the same old colonies in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean are being sucked dry by the same old bloodsuckers. The only difference is that this robbery is carried on quite legally through the mechanism of world trade by which the advanced capitalist countries of Europe exercise a joint domination of the ex-colonies, and are thereby spared the cost of direct rule, while continuing to extract huge surplus profits by exchanging more labour for less.
The division of the world into rival imperialist powers of which Lenin speaks was already completed by the end of the 19th century. After that, the question arose of the re-division of the world, a question that could only be settled by one means: war. Over the last one hundred years there have been two world wars, the second of which caused the deaths of 55 million people and nearly ended in the extinction of human civilization.
This provides the most graphic prove that the capitalist system has ceased to play a progressive role and become a monstrous obstacle to human progress. The tremendous development of the productive forces enters into conflict with two fundamental barriers: private ownership of the means of production and the nation state.
This is the root cause of wars in the present historical period. The periodic outbreak of wars, which is usually portrayed as an outbreak of inexplicable collective madness, is in reality an expression of the tensions that arise in class society, which can reach a critical point when the contradictions can only be solved by violent means. Long before Lenin, Clausewitz explained that war is the continuation of politics by other means. In The Communist Manifesto Marx and Engels showed that capitalism, which first arises in the form of the nation state, inevitably creates a world market.
The crushing domination of the world market is, in fact, the most decisive feature of the epoch in which we live.
No country, no matter how big and powerful, can escape from the pull of the world market. The total failure of socialism in one country in Russia and China is sufficient proof of this assertion. So is the fact that both the major wars of the 20th century were fought out on a world scale and were wars for world domination. Capitalism and the nation state from being a source of enormous progress became a colossal fetter and impediment to the harmonious development of production.
This contradiction reflected itself in the world wars of and and the crisis of the inter-war period. The same cynical calculations may be discerned in the case of every one of the belligerent nations, from the biggest to the smallest. The development of world trade in the period that followed the Second World War allowed the capitalist system to overcome this contradiction, at any rate partially and for a temporary period. A major role in the economic upswing was the development of world trade and the intensification of the international division of labour.
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This culminated in what was called globalization. Ex-Marxists like Eric Hobsbawm believed that globalisation would put an end to national conflict. The revisionist Karl Kautsky said exactly the same thing a hundred years ago. The First World War showed the hollowness of that theory. Far from eliminating national contradictions, they have been enormously exacerbated. Despite all the talk about free trade and liberalisation, there is a fierce struggle for markets between all the main capitalist nations.
There is a clear tendency for the world to break up into trading blocks, dominated respectively by the USA, Germany and Japan. Each one jealously tries to protect its own markets and spheres of influence, while demanding more access to those of its rivals. In the early decades of the 21st century thousands of people continue to be slaughtered in wars every day. The unaudited pro forma combined data does not purport to be indicative of the results of operations or financial position that may be obtained in the future or that actually would have been obtained had such transactions occurred on such dates.
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